Psychology of Anxiety – Medication For Anxiety and Depression

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Anxiety is a normal part of life. You might feel anxious when you have a big test or have a meeting with your boss… Or when you have enough money to pay the bills in your account. But when anxiety goes beyond just a temporary fear or worry, when it starts to impact your life, your work, your relationships.. or even your health, that’s when it becomes a serious concern. If you have anxiety, you feel it. If you are taking anxiety, symptoms may include chest pain, muscle tension, headaches, stomach aches, nausea, heart palpitations, restlessness, dizziness, problems sleeping, hot flashes, chills, a whole bunch of other things.

Death. Haha, I’m just kidding about that last one. Chronic anxiety can be really bad for your long-term health, too. It’s been linked to things like heart attacks and a suppressed immune system. And that doesn’t even address what’s going on in your head! Anxiety Disorders often have “cognitive distortions”. Cognitive distortions are irrational thoughts or beliefs about ourselves or the world around us. Basically, it’s a fancy word for worries. Examples of this might include things like all-or-nothing thinking If I don’t get done everything on my to-do list today, I’m gonna be a total failure! and catastrophizing. Oh no. I can’t believe I made that typo in that email.

They must think I’m an idiot. These cognitive distortions can have serious impacts on behavior as well, affecting a person’s day-to-day life, how they interact with friends, or how they manage their job. Medication for anxiety and depression, symptoms tend to become more severe and frequent over time. But don’t fret! Help is out there. Contrary to popular belief, an anxiety disorder isn’t something you can just “snap out of” or ignore. It also isn’t a sign of personal weakness. Or someone who is unstable. Medication for anxiety and depression can affect anyone. This stigma against anxiety disorders keeps people from seeking help. Only one third of people suffering from anxiety get treatment, and people who believe that anxiety is a choice are even less likely to get help when they actually need it. So how do anxiety disorders come about? And who’s at risk? Well, there is a popular way of thinking about anxiety called the Threshold Model.

Imagine for a moment a graph with a normal distribution curve. The Y-axis is the number of people in your population. And the X-axis is predisposition to anxiety. In the general American population, about 20 percent of people have a current anxiety disorder. That means that people whose anxiety level crosses the threshold in this upper 20 percent will likely experience an anxiety disorder. This threshold can also change based on how you change the population. For example, anxiety seems somewhat hereditary. So if the population is people who have parents with anxiety disorders, that threshold goes up to 30 percent. Or if the population is individuals who have experienced a traumatic event, such as mass violence, that threshold goes up to 67 percent. As you can see, there’s a lot of factors that can change the threshold.

So, on an individual basis, depending on genetic predisposition, environment, and life experiences, the threshold will change. Okay, so let’s say you think you might have anxiety and you’d like to get some help. Now what? The first step is setting up a meeting with a psychiatrist, psychologist, or counselor. You can discuss your thoughts and symptoms with them, and they’ll determine your diagnosis. Then they’ll help you to know what the best medication for anxiety and depression. There are a lot of ways to know what the best medication for anxiety and depression list. Typically, the combination of medication and talk therapy is considered the most effective treatment. Alie talked about different medications, but today I’m focusing on the therapy side of things.

Honestly, there’s a lot of different therapies that could be helpful for medication for anxiety and depression. But there is one that stands head and shoulders above the rest with more than 30 years of compelling empirical data. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, or CBT. CBT focuses on what and how a person thinks or acts, more than why a person thinks or acts that way. To boil it all down, CBT has two goals. First, there’s cognitive restructuring, which involves the therapist and client working together to change thinking patterns. For example, treatment may focus on changing cognitive distortions.

If the person is able to recognize irrational thoughts and change them, they will be more able to reduce their anxiety in the future. The second goal is behavioral activation, which involves clients learning to overcome obstacles to participating in enjoyable activities. For example, exposure therapy involves exposing a person to their fear without any actual danger. If a person is scared of snakes, for example, you might have a non-venomous snake in an enclosed tank across the room. The therapist then helps the client through what they’re feeling. Eventually, when they become desensitized to the fear and feel more comfortable, the therapist moves the tank a little closer until the client’s anxiety returns.

And then they repeat the process. But how effective is this? Well, for specific phobias, like fear of sharks or string beans, individuals can see an 80 percent improvement in symptoms with as little as two to nine hours of cognitive behavioral treatment. In panic disorder, patients see about 60 to 93 percent improvement in symptoms, depending on length of therapy. Patients with social anxiety disorder and most forms of PTSD also see significant, long-term improvement when using exposure and social skills training. Overall, CBT’s effectiveness is huge.

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At home on your own, there are a lot of coping skills that help reduce anxiety. Mostly lots of things that are good for self-care. These include building strong relationships, getting lots of sleep, exercise, eating well, doing fun activities, and meditation. If you’d like to try reducing your anxiety at home, click in the upper right corner for a guided cognitive behavioral technique that relaxes your body and, as a result, your mind. Anxiety is no joke. If you think you or a friend or a family member is suffering from an anxiety disorder, take a look at the description for resources in your area. Help is out there and you’re not alone. So don’t wait. Thanks for watching this episode of Micah Psych! If you liked this episode, give me a thumbs up.  Make sure you head over and check out Alie’s video about the neuroscience of anxiety! If you love us as much as we love you, consider supporting us on Patreon.

We couldn’t do all this without your support, and we really appreciate it. Tweet me if you want to talk about anxiety or treatment or therapy. And if you’d like to learn about a particular condition, let us know in the comments below. Until next time, I’m Micah. Think about it. .

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What to Give a Constipated Baby: Foods That Cause and Relieve Constipation in Babies |}

How can I tell if my baby is constipated? |}

First, Consider what is normal for the baby. She might have a bowel movement after every feeding, or she might wait a day or two longer in between. Your baby's individual pattern depends on which she eats and beverages, how busy she is, and how fast she's digests food.

If your infant Beverages formula or eats solid food, she will probably have a regular bowel movement at least once a day. If your infant is breastfed, there is no"regular" number or schedule -- only what is typical for your infant. It's not unheard of for breastfed babies to have one bowel movement per week.

Following a While, you're going to be tuned into your baby's unique habits. If you're concerned that your baby may be constipated, watch for these signs:

Less regular bowel movements than Normal, especially if your baby has not had one for three or more days and is obviously uncomfortable when she does
Hard, dry stools that are difficult for her to maneuver -- no matter how frequently |}

Why is my baby getting constipated?

You will find Several potential causes:

Solid food. Do not be surprised if your infant Becomes mildly constipated as he eats more food. That is often because rice cereal -- a common first food -- is low in fiber. |} Constipation can also happen when you wean your infant from breast milk because this occasionally results in dehydration.

Formula. Infants who breastfeed exclusively are rarely constipated. Breast milk has the perfect balance of fat and protein, so it generates stools which are almost always soft -- even when your infant hasn't had one for several days.

If your infant Is on formulation , it is likely that something in his formula is creating him constipated. It is not unusual for the protein component in various formulations to create constipation. Ask your child's doctor about changing brands.

(Despite What you might have heard, the quantity of iron in formula doesn't cause constipation.)

How to Relieve your child's constipation

What are the Signals of constipation in babies, and how can you cure it? See all videos

Dehydration. If your infant becomes dried , his system will respond by Absorbing more fluid out of whatever he eats or drinks -- and also from the waste in his bowels. The end result is hard, dry stools that are hard to pass.

Illness or a medical condition. Although it's rare, constipation may be caused by an underlying medical condition like hypothyroidism, botulism, and certain food allergies and metabolic disorders. Rarely, constipation is caused by Hirschsprung's disease, a condition caused by a birth defect that prevents a baby's gut from functioning correctly. |}

If there Does not appear to be a reason why your infant passes difficult, painful stools, have his physician rule out these conditions.

How can I treat my child's constipation?

Here are items to try:

Help her get some exercise. |} If your baby's a crawler, invite her to do a couple of laps. If she's not crawling yet, try pumping her thighs instead. While she's lying on her back, gently move her legs in a forward, circular motion as if she had been pedaling a bicycle. {
Massage your baby's stomach. |} Step three finger-widths beneath her navel on the lower left side and use gentle but firm pressure there together with your palms. Press until you feel a stability or mass. Maintain gentle but constant pressure for about three minutes.
If you feed your infant formula, then ask her physician about changing to a different brand. Occasionally adding dark corn syrup to the formula also does the trick: Start using 1/4 teaspoon per 4 oz of formula. If that doesn't help, slowly increase the quantity. Do not give her more than one teaspoon per 4 oz.
Add a bit prune juice to breast or formula milk if your baby is at least 4 weeks old. Normally, it isn't necessary to give your baby juicebut a bit is fine to help alleviate constipation. (Attempt apple or pear juice if your baby doesn't like the flavor of prunes.) Give her an ounce each day for each month of lifeup to 4 oz for a 4-month-old. After 8 weeks, your baby can have up to 6 ounces of juice per day to treat constipation.
If your infant is old enough to consume an assortment of solid foods, cut down on constipating foods like carrots, rice, and cooked carrots. Consider giving her a couple tablespoons of pureed prunes, apricots, or pears to help loosen her bowel movements. |} For the best outcome, give your infant a stomach massage first, then a few high fiber food.
Talk to your child's doctor about other treatment choices. Ask about utilizing an over-the-counter stool softener to make it even more comfortable for the baby to have a bowel movement, but not give her a laxative with no physician's approval. health care provider may also suggest you attempt a glycerin suppository if your baby is severely constipated. |} {The suppository stimulates your child's rectum and helps her pass a stool. |} Employing a suppository sometimes is nice, but do not take action on a regular basis because your baby could wind up relying on them to have a bowel motion.
If a baby is passing such hard, dry stools that you find a tiny blood or perhaps small tears (fissures) in the delicate skin near the start of her anus, you can employ some aloe vera cream to the area to help it heal. Keep the area as clean and dry as possible, and mention the fissures for your child's physician.

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Baby Massage: Helping digestion


Baby Massages aren't just soothing; they are also able to help your child's digestion. Get step-by-step instructions together with our easy-to-follow baby-massage video. See all infant videos

{When should I call the physician? |}

Telephone the {Doctor if your infant isn't eating, loses weight, or has blood in his stool. |} Or if basic treatments, like adjusting his dietaren't helping his ailment. And when he is younger than 4 weeks old, then call his physician if he's really hard stools or has not had a bowel movement within one day of when he usually goes. Do not give your infant a laxative or suppository without consulting with his physician first.

Kaysh Shinn As fresh Parents, you might be surprised at how much you believe, talk, and worry about poop. When a kid is pooping frequently, it usually means that her pipes are in working order so she's getting enough to eat and disposing of the rest. So it is clear that the absence of noticeable or -- change in consistency in -- poop can pressure parents out. And since food is mainly to blame when it comes to constipation, let's have a better look in your baby's diet. {

The Just-Liquid Months

rather infrequent. |} Infants are on an All-liquid diet, so their food is more easily absorbed and digested, says Jennifer Shu, M.D., an Atlanta-based pediatrician and coauthor of Food Fights: Winning The Nutritional Challenges of Parenthood Equipped with Insight, Humor, and A Bottle of Ketchup. |} On average, babies 0 to 4 weeks old poop 3 to 4 times a day. But instead than frequency, the most important thing to watch for is that it is tender. If an baby's poop is hard, that's a indication that it is staying in there more than we need it to be,'' Dr. Shu says.


Breastfed babies can be all over the map when it comes to their poop |} Schedule, making it much easier to think constipation is to blame. Some infants will poop after every feeding; others may go a couple of days before releasing their bowels. These long stretches can be attributed to how simple it is for babies to digest breast milk. The ability of a baby's gut to absorb breast milk is amazing, says Jane Morton, M.D., a clinical professor of pediatrics at Stanford University School of Medicine, therefore babies might not poop that far. |} But if you suspect that your infant might be constipated, have a look at Mom's diet, as every thing Mother eats gets passed to infant.


Constipation in breastfed infants could be a symptom of a milk-protein |} Infection,'' says Diana Lerner, M.D., instructor of pediatrics and pediatric gastroenterology fellow at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. |} So occasionally I would suggest that a mom who is breastfeeding take milk out of her diet (consider substituting soy products for dairy). And on the other end of the spectrum, what you eat can also ease your baby's constipation. If baby is constipated, Dr. Shu recommends that the mother eat a few prunes to see if that helps.

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Exclusively formula-fed babies are much more likely to have constipation |} Troubles, Dr. Morton says. Some of the components in formula might be harder to your baby's digestive tract and result in much firmer poops. Constipation may also be caused by a milk-protein allergy or intolerance. |} When it's diagnosed, your pediatrician may change your child's formula to one that isn't milk-based, but parents should consult their pediatrician before building a formula change. Parents could also be enticed to change to a low-iron formulation if they suspect their baby is constipated, Dr. Shu says. But babies want that iron, and although foods high in iron may cause constipation, the amount found in formula isn't to blame.

Solid Foods

Once solid Foods are introduced to your child's diet, his poop will change. More formed food usually means more shaped poop, Dr. Shu says. Additionally, the intestines are more mature now. |} They can compact things and hold them more. And since the entire body is taking more time to process the food, then you'll likely find one less poopy diaper each day.

{Food can be both friend and foe. |} The foods which could be making it Hard to poop:


Take your ABCs -- or applesauce, bananas, and cereal, Dr. Morton says. |} Too much of some of them, particularly cereal, could cause constipation in your infant; also, keep an eye on dairy products which are popular foods for babies, such as cheese and yogurt. Low-fiber foods may bind up babies. may include white rice, white bread, and pasta. |} Although it might be tempting to cut constipation-causing foods entirely, Dr. Shu recommends giving your infant these foods in moderation -- which is, no longer than a few times per day -- and cutting back amounts if a specific food is debatable.

When Baby's poops become more infrequent, tougher, or hard to maneuver, Enlist the help of these foods to soften the problem

Fiber is the first friend. Anything containing bran, famous for it's High-fiber content, should help loosen up your child's stool. Think fiber-rich cereals, whole-wheat pasta, and brown rice. |} Next are the P fruits, particularly pears, plums, peaches, and prunes. |} Their juice counterparts may also do just fine. Dr. Shu often recommends pear juiceit works extremely well and kids actually like it. {Some vegetables may also help: Attempt broccoli, beans, and Brussels sprouts. |} And don't forget water; occasionally the system just needs a good flushing to get working again. {

How to Change a Diaper

All content on this Web site, such as medical view and some other Health-related info, is for informational purposes only and should not be regarded as a particular diagnosis or treatment program for any individual circumstance. The use of this site and the information contained herein does not produce a doctor-patient relationship. Always seek the direct advice of your own physician in connection with any questions or issues you might have regarding your own health or the health of the others.


What Causes Constipation

Although It is rare for a baby on an all-liquid diet to experience constipation, it sometimes happens. Exclusively formula-fed babies are a lot more likely to have difficulty from constipation, Dr. Morton says. Formula can business up poop much greater than breast milk may, Dr. Shu adds. If your infant has a milk-protein allergy or intolerance, she could wind up constipated. A milk-based formula can cause this, as well as the milk in mom's diet that's passed through the breast milk. This also carries over to some other kinds of milk an older infant could eat, such as yogurt and cheese.

When a baby Is around 6 weeks, pediatricians often give parents the green light to offer you an array of infant food. What your baby eats will mostly determine the type of poop you may anticipate, Dr. Shu says. And several distinct foods can promote constipation. Start by considering your ABCs--applesauce, bananas, and cereal, Dr. Morton says. |} {Too much of some of them, particularly rice cereal, can get you into trouble. |} When you start introducing table foods, then it might be much more difficult to pinpoint the constipation offender.

How to Treat It

A change in Formula or in Mom's diet could help fight gout in formula and breastfed babies, respectively. Solid foods, that are often the reason for gout , may also be the treatment, Dr. Shu says. Several kinds of veggies and fruits, like broccoli and pears, can get things back on course, along with fruit juice and water.

When a Change in diet isn't doing the trick, talk with your pediatrician before Employing other procedures. The doctor might suggest rectal stimulation together with the {The use of a cotton swab or rectal thermometer. |} Movement within a few minutes of stimulation, Dr. Shu says. Another potential Is a glycerin suppository. |} If it works, it could take about an hour to produce {A poop, Dr. Shu says. |} hints may include Miralax, a tasteless powder you can combine to a beverage; senna, a |} Natural vegetable laxative; and lactulose, a synthetic sugar used for treating |} constipation.