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Treating Separation Anxiety In Dogs Medication

Magnesium for cramps?

Can I get enough magnesium?

One Way of assessing your magnesium status is to simply contact your Healthcare provider and request detailed magnesium testing. Yet magnesium assessment is typically done using blood serum testing, and such tests may be misleading. Only 1% of magnesium in the body is in fact found in blood, and just.3percent is found in blood serum, therefore clinical blood serum testing may not successfully identify magnesium deficiency.

How to proceed?


Fortunately, it's likely to get a sense of where your ingestion may lie |} Simply by asking yourself a few questions about the way you live, and seeing for certain signs and signs of low magnesium levels.

Learn how to examine your hints below, and find out what you can do to ensure Magnesium balance and good health. these questions, you may be at risk for low magnesium intake. |} {

|} Can you drink carbonated beverages on a regular basis?

Most dark colored sodas contain phosphates. These substances really bind With calcium within the digestive tract, rendering it unavailable to the body. Thus, even if you're eating a balanced diet, by drinking soda with your foods you're flushing magnesium from your system. 4 5 6

The average consumption of carbonated beverages now is more than ten times What it had been in 1940. 7 This skyrocketing increase is accountable for both decreased calcium and magnesium availability in the body. {8 9

|} Do you eat pastries, cakes, desserts, candies or other sweet foods?

Processed sugar Isn't only a zero magnesium product but it also induces the Body to excrete magnesium through the kidneys. The process of producing refined sugar from sugar cane eliminates molasses, stripping the magnesium content completely. |}

And glucose does not simply serve to decrease magnesium levels. Sweet foods are Known by nutritionists as"anti-nutrients". |} Anti-nutrients like candies are foods which replace entire nutritious foods in the diet, yet really consume nutrients when digested, resulting in a net loss. Since all foods require minerals and vitamins to be consumed as a way to power the process of digestion, it's important to select foods which"back" vital nourishment, and then a few.

The sweet foods and processed baked products you have in your daily diet, the More likely you're deficient in magnesium and other nutrients that are essential. {

|} Do you experience a great deal of anxiety in your life, or have you recently had a major medical procedure such as surgery?

Both physical and psychological stress can be a cause of magnesium deficiency.


Stress can be a cause of magnesium deficiency, and a lack of magnesium tends |} To magnify the pressure response, worsening the problem. In studies, cortisol and adrenaline, byproducts of the"fight or flight" reaction related to tension and anxiety, were associated with decreased magnesium. 10

Because stressful conditions require more magnesium use by the body, all Such conditions can cause lack, including both psychological and physical types of stress such as surgery, burns, and chronic disease. {

|} Can you drink tea, coffee, or other caffeinated drinks every day?

Magnesium levels are controlled in the body in large part from the kidneys, Which filter and excrete excess magnesium and other nutritional supplements. But caffeine causes the pancreas to release additional magnesium irrespective of body status.

Should you drink caffeinated beverages such as coffee, soda and tea frequently, has been increased. |} {

|} {Can you choose a diuretic, heart medicine, asthma medication, birth control pills or estrogen replacement therapy? |}

The effects of certain medications have been demonstrated to reduce magnesium levels in The entire body by raising magnesium reduction through excretion from the kidneys.

See also:

For a complete list of the particular drugs that could influence magnesium levels, read our article, Reasons For a Lack of Magnesium. {
|} {Can you drink more than seven alcoholic beverages per week? |}

The effect of alcohol on magnesium levels is like the impact of Diuretics: it lowers magnesium readily available to the cells by increasing the excretion of magnesium from the kidneys. In research, the clinical calcium deficiency has been found in 30% of alcoholics. 11

Higher alcohol intake also results in diminished efficiency of the Digestive system, in addition to vitamin D deficiency, each of which may contribute to low magnesium levels. {12

|} Can you take calcium supplements without magnesium or calcium supplements with magnesium in under a 1:1 ratio?

Studies have shown that when magnesium intake is reduced, calcium Supplementation can decrease magnesium absorption and retention. 13 14 15 And, whereas calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on magnesium amounts, magnesium supplementation really boosts the body's use of calcium. 16


Though many reports indicate taking calcium to magnesium in a 2:1 ratio, this |} Figure is mostly random. The ideal ratio for any individual will vary depending on current conditions in addition to risk factors for lack .

But, several researchers today support a 1:1 calcium to magnesium ratio For improved bone support and decreased risk of disorder. That is due not just to the increased signs pointing to widespread magnesium deficiency, but also concerns over the danger of arterial calcification when low magnesium stores are coupled with higher calcium intake.

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According to noted magnesium researcher Mildred Seelig:|}

The body tends to retain calcium when within an magnesium-deficient condition. Extra Calcium intake in such a time can result in an abnormal rise of calcium levels within the cells, including the cells of the heart and blood vessels... Given the delicate balance necessary between calcium and magnesium in the cells, so it's best to make sure magnesium is adequate if you're taking calcium supplements" {17

|} Can you experience any of these:

Stress? {
Times of hyperactivity?
|} {
Difficulty getting to sleep?
|} {
Difficulty staying asleep?

The above symptoms may be neurological signs of magnesium deficiency. Adequate magnesium is essential for nerve conduction and can also be associated with electrolyte imbalances which affect the nervous system. Low magnesium is also connected with personality changes and sometimes depression.

Read more:

For a complete list of the Symptoms of magnesium deficiency, read our article, Symptoms of Vitamin . {
|} {Can you experience any of these:

Painful muscle spasms? |} {
Muscle cramping?
|} {
Facial tics? {
Eye twitches, or involuntary eye movements?
|} {

Neuromuscular symptoms such as these are one of the classic signs of a |} Possible magnesium shortage.

Without magnesium, our muscles would be in a constant state of contraction.

Magnesium is an essential element of muscular relaxation, and with no our Muscles would be in a constant state of regeneration. deal with. |} As noted in the publication The Magnesium Factor, both minerals are"two sides of a real life coin; they have activities that oppose one another, yet they serve as a group." 18


Chvostek's Sign and Trousseau's Sign are both clinical evaluations for involuntary |} Muscle moves, and both can indicate either calcium or magnesium deficiency, or both. In fact, magnesium deficiency may actually seem like calcium deficiency in testing, and one of the first recommendations upon getting low calcium evaluation results is magnesium supplementation.

Read more:

For a complete list of those ailments associated with magnesium deficiency, read our article, Symptoms of Vitamin .
To Find out More about the role of calcium in muscular function, see The Way Magnesium Works in the Body. {
|} Can you answer yes to any of the above questions and are also age 55 or older? |}

Older adults are particularly vulnerable to low magnesium status. |} It's Been shown that aging, stress and disease all contribute to growing magnesium needs, yet most elderly adults really take in less magnesium from food sources than when they were younger.

In addition, magnesium metabolism may be less effective as we grow older, as Changes the GI tract and kidneys contribute to elderly adults consuming less and keeping less magnesium. 19

If You're above 55 and also showing lifestyle signals or symptoms associated with Low magnesium, it's especially important that you work to improve your magnesium intake. When body stores of magnesium run low, risks of overt hypomagnesaemia (magnesium deficiency) grow significantly.

How can you know for certain if you have a lack? {

Magnesium's effect is so crucial and far reaching that symptoms of its |} Absence reverberate throughout the body's systems. {This makes signals of its lack hard to pin down with absolute precision, even for cutting edge researchers. |} Physicians Pilar Aranda and Elena Planells reported this difficulty in their report in the International Magnesium Symposium of 2007:


The clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency are difficult to specify |} Because depletion of this cation is associated with considerable abnormalities in the metabolism of several enzymes and elements. If prolonged, insufficient magnesium intake may be liable for symptoms attributed to other ailments, or whose causes are unknown."

Among investigators, magnesium deficiency is known as the silent epidemic of Our instances, and it is widely acknowledged that definitive testing for lack remains elusive. {Judy Driskell, Professor, Nutrition and Health Sciences in the University of Nebraska, describes this"invisible deficiency" as chronic latent magnesium deficiency, and clarifies:


Normal serum and plasma concentrations have been found in People with low magnesium in [red blood cells] and tissues. |} Yet efforts to find an indicator of subclinical magnesium status have not yielded a cheap one that has been well supported." 20

However while the identification of magnesium deficiency may be uncertain, its Importance is undeniable.


Magnesium triggers over 300 enzyme reactions in the body, translating to |} Thousands of biochemical reactions occurring on a constant basis every day. essential to nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood coagulation, energy generation, nutrient metabolism and bone and cell formation. |}

Considering these varied and sour effects, and of course the Cascading influence magnesium levels have on other vital minerals such as potassium and calcium, 1 thing is clear -- long duration low magnesium intake is something to be prevented.

What can you do to increase magnesium intake?

The more your intake stays low, the more likelihood your bodily stores Will be diminished, leaving you vulnerable to a number of the troubling side effects of long-term deficiency. According to Dr. Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D., and expert on magnesium therapy, adequate magnesium may enhance heart health, prevent obesity and stroke, and enhance memory and mood.

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If you answered no to All the above questions, then you may be able to rely on High food sources of magnesium, like those described in our article on Magnesium at the Diet.

However for a Lot of People, especially individuals with diseases And symptoms associated with reduced magnesium, active magnesium supplementation may be a crucial part of returning to good health.


In her publication, The Magnesium Miracle, Dr. Dean notes achieving |} Adequate magnesium is notoriously hard, stating:

I'm convinced that to get enough magnesium now, You Have to take Supplements." 21

Among the Very Best ways to improve your magnesium levels is to unite A healthy diet using transdermal magnesium. |}

Many of the variables that contribute to reduced magnesium shops Are caused by inefficiencies of the GI tract. By providing magnesium through the skin directly into the cells, topical magnesium products bypass lots of the problems connected with reduced magnesium absorption.

In elderly adults, decreased gastric acid amounts in the Digestive system may be a factor in decreased nutrient accessibility. Hydrochloric acid supplements may be used with magnesium to combat this dilemma; nonetheless a simpler and less costly option is the use of magnesium chloride supplements. Magnesium chloride has been proven to have a higher bioavailability, while concurrently giving the chloride necessary for healthy digestion and vitamin and nutrient absorption.

Magnesium researcher Mildred Seelig has called magnesium"the silent Ability of our hearts and arteries" and"essential for life". |} complete health". |}

If you haven't heard much about magnesium and its importance to good health, Now's the opportunity to learn. And if it's something you've always intended to look into, now is the time to take action!


Leg cramps Are reported in around 60% of adults and 7% of children.1 They're troublesome and can cause severe pain and sleep disturbance,2 and residual pain occasionally occurs in the affected muscles after cramping.3 Up to 20 percent of people who complain of leg cramps have symptoms daily that are severe enough to need medical intervention.1Currently no remedies for leg cramps are demonstrated to be secure and effective1 however there is a clear demand for treatment choices.

Quinine has Been commonly used to treat leg cramps however TGA approval for this sign was withdrawn in 2004 after reports of an increased probability of thrombocytopenia and 4 associated fatalities in Australia.4

Since Magnesium plays a role in neuromuscular transmission and muscle contraction, it's been hypothesised that magnesium deficiency may predispose to muscle cramps.2,5Hence magnesium supplements are often suggested to prevent cramps. Does the evidence support using magnesium for this sign?

Practice points

Differentiating leg cramp from different ailments can be hard, the term'cramp' may be used to refer to a variety of pain types. {
When taking a medical history, think about factors that might account for leg cramp (peripheral vascular disease or motor neurone disease) in addition to drug causes (calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists and diuretics). |}
While magnesium deficiency has been suggested as a cause of leg cramps, there is no evidence that magnesium supplements provide a clinical advantage other than for pregnancy-related leg cramp.
Consider the capacity for development of hypermagnesaemia in patients using magnesium supplements, particularly in elderly people and people with kidney disease. {
Magnesium disagrees with bisphosphonates and tetracycline antibiotics and should be taken 2 hours before or after these medicines. |}
Do not prescribe quinine tablets for leg cramps. The efficacy of quinine in preventing cramp is restricted and can be outweighed by the chance of severe thrombocytopenia, which may be deadly.
Contemplate non-pharmacological interventions for cramps such as stretching.

Diagnosis: concentrate on treatable causes

Differentiating Leg cramps from other states in elderly people can be hard, the term'cramp' may be used to refer to a variety of pain types. {Consider other causes such as restless legs syndrome, nocturnal myoclonus, myopathic and neuropathic conditions.3


When taking A patient's medical history comprise a review of medicines and medical ailments.1 Consider other variables which may contribute, such as peripheral vascular disease or motor neurone disease. Possible drug causes of cramp include calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists and diuretics.3 Interestingly, the calcium-channel blockers diltiazem and verapamil are assessed for the treatment of muscle cramp in elderly people, however the trials were small and of inferior quality.6,7


Physical Evaluation rarely identifies leg cramps since they're involuntary, unpredictable, and usually occur at nighttime. But findings on evaluation may indicate a potential underlying medical cause (i.e.peripheral vascular disease).1,5

There are no Routine blood tests recommended for the identification of muscular cramps and there's no proven association with electrolyte abnormalities.8

The third Trimester of pregnancy is frequently associated with leg cramps, although it's hard to distinguish between pregnancy as the primary cause and venous insufficiency.9 Despite the high prevalence of leg cramps during pregnancy, there has been minimal research in this area.

Do not use quinine tablets for leg cramp

Remedy With quinine was common before its withdrawal as a sign in 2004. The withdrawal was a consequence of 198 reports of thrombocytopenia related to quinine use (since 1972), including 4 deaths.4 Quinine was withdrawn at a similar time in america and afterwards, in 2006, the US FDA Federal Register alerted users to the issues surrounding off-label use, reporting 665 serious adverse events such as 93 deaths since 1969.10 Despite this, off-label use still proceeds both here4 and abroad.

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Magnesium treatment for leg cramps

Evidence is lacking except for pregnancy-associated cramps

The Effectiveness and security of magnesium has been shown for eclampsia and pre-eclampsia, arrhythmia, severe asthma, and migraine.11 There is some evidence for efficacy of magnesium supplementation in treatment of leg cramps in elderly women but not for different people.2,12

A current Systematic review evaluated the impact of magnesium versus placebo for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps and also found the overall effect of magnesium to be insignificant.2 Seven trials were included, one assessed magnesium infusion versus placebo and the remainder assessed oral magnesium therapy but frequency and dose of therapy varied between all studies.

A Sub-analysis of three of those studies involving just pregnant women showed a significant gap between the magnesium and placebo groups in the median amount of leg cramps experienced a week.2 Nevertheless the studies simply contained a small number of participants (n=361 in total and n=198 in the subgroup analysis), and therefore was underpowered to detect significant differences between groups. In addition selection bias may have impacted results as participants were included in the analysis whose leg complaints may have been confused with ailments known to be associated with magnesium deficiency (i.e. restless leg syndrome).

Another Recent systematic review assessed a further seven studies in patients with leg cramp treated with magnesium.12 The elemental magnesium dose given varied between studies. inhabitants included 322 mostly elderly patients and 202 women with pregnancy-associated leg cramps. |} After four weeks of therapy, differences in percentage change from baseline of cramps per week involving magnesium and placebo groups were small and not statistically significant.

The authors Concluded that magnesium is not likely to provide a significant benefit in reducing the frequency or seriousness of idiopathic leg cramps in elderly people.12 The second review also contained three further studies on pregnant women; although a meta-analysis was not possible with them, results from the individual studies have been considered and found to be more combined. One study found magnesium decreased cramp frequency and pain while the other two found no advantage.12 Although two of those studies were comparable in design and setting,13,14 their outcomes were distinct; this may have been because one of the studies lacked baseline measurement of cramp frequency. If cramp frequency before intervention was not comparable between participants in these studies, it is not appropriate to evaluate the amount of cramps experienced throughout the treatment period.

Oral magnesium supplementation is well tolerated

The two {Meta-analyses found that magnesium is well taken with the most frequent adverse effects affecting the digestive tract (diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and constipation).2,12


Moderate-to-severe {And symptomatic hypermagnesaemia is usually due to excessive supplemental intake of magnesium (e.g. as antacids, enemas or by intravenous infusion), most frequently in patients with kidney impairment. |} Be conscious of the most common clinical features of moderate-to-severe hypermagnesaemia that are usually neuromuscular (e.g. reduction of deep tendon reflexes, muscular paralysis, gloomy conscious state and respiratory depression). Other signs include anorexia, nausea, skin flushing, hypotension, bradycardia/heart block and cardiac arrest.15


When Considering magnesium supplements, make sure patients choose a product comprising magnesium just. Some magnesium supplements are blended with potassium and might contribute to hyperkalaemia in people using ACE inhibitors or other medications that cause potassium retention.3 Consider assessing kidney function in people using medicines that may impair or adversely affect kidney function16 and watch for signs of toxicity.15

Other therapies

Small studies Have demonstrated some benefit from various other medications such as diltiazem, gabapentin and vitamin B complex although none may be recommended for muscular cramps because of the inadequate quality of evidence.6,17-19 Multivitamins and sodium supplementation have also demonstrated benefit in preventing cramps in elderly women, although think about the potential risk of hypertension using sodium supplementation.9 Australian guidelines recommend calcium supplements for leg cramps in pregnant women according to case reports but also highlight there are no controlled trials to support its use.20 Paracetamol can be handy to manage residual muscle pain after cramping.3

Non-pharmacological treatment

Passive Stretch and massage of the affected muscle can relieve cramp and stretching the calf muscles every day has been advocated to prevent cramp.21 Though there's no clinical trial evidence to support these steps, anecdotal evidence suggests they may succeed and the probability of adverse effects is reduced.

Information for patients


Magnesium interacts with other medications |}


Magnesium significantly lowers the absorption of oral bisphosphonates and tetracycline antibiotics and may reduce their activity. |} {
Advise patients to ensure they take these medicines at least 2 hours before or after taking a magnesium supplement.22 |}

Median Amount of leg cramps experienced per week: Difference = 0.807 (CI 0.015 to 1.207)
Difference In percent change from baseline of cramps per week: Difference = --3.93percent (CI |} --21.12percent to 13.26percent )